in History ARCHIVES
Understanding the Present by Honoring our Past began November
Wednesday, December 30, 2009
On this day in 1835, the Second Seminole War - also known as the Florida War - began. One acclaimed Seminole leader, Chief Osceola led his forces into battle against the United States; the war lasted more than seven years.
Tuesday, December 29, 2009
During this month in 2007, the Ontario government announced it was returning the Ipperwash Provincial Park to the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation. During the Second World War, the Canadian government took the land to build a military training camp and never returned it to Aboriginal people.
Monday, December 28, 2009
On this day in 1890, Lakota Chief Big Foot and his band were captured by the U.S. Army's 7th Calvary. They were detained at a campsitein Wounded Knee, South Dakota. When the soliders tried to disarm the warriors they fought back. The next morning more than 100 Lakota people were killed and the conflict became known as the "Wounded Knee Massacre."
Friday, December 25, 2009
On this day in 1916, Evelyn Alexander was born in Minto, Alaska. For more than 30 years, she worked for free as a health aide and midwife in the area. The Athabascan woman won many awards, including the Alaska Federation of Natives Elder of the Year.
Thursday, December 24, 2009
During this week in 2007, the Ontario government returned the Ipperwash Provincial Park to the Kettle and Stony Point First Nation. The move settled a long-standing grievance and came more than ten years after a Native protester was killed in the park by police. The First Nation claimed the land was illegally taken by the Canadian government for use during World War II.
Tuesday, December 22, 2009
On this day in 1898, President William McKinley established the Hualapai Indian School Reserve. The reserve was set aside for the purpose of educating the Hualapai people in Arizona Territory.
Monday, December 21, 2009
On this day in 1919, Alaska Native leader Walter Noden was born. The Bristol Bay leader formed the Southwestern Alaska Native Association and fought for land rights.
Wednesday, December 16, 2009
During this week in 2007, Diane Humetewa was sworn in as U.S. Attorney for Arizona. The Hopi woman is believed to be the first Native American to hold such a position. Humetewa worked to enhance collaboration with tribes and enforce justice in Indian Country. She resigned from the position this year.
Tuesday, December 15, 2009
On this day in 2007, a ceremony was held in Lead, South Dakota for the return of personal items of Sitting Bull. The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History returned a pair of leggings and a lock of hair to descendants of the Lakota leader. More than 40 people gathered for the ceremony to cleanse the items.
Monday, December 14, 2009
During this week in 2008, Sam Bradford won the Heisman Trophy. The University of Oklahoma quarterback's win inspired Native students across the country. Bradford is the first enrolled Cherokee Nation citizen to win the award that is given out annually to the most outstanding college football player in the U.S.
Friday, December 11, 2009
During this week in 1924, the Wupatki National Monument was established in Arizona. The pueblos were occupied by Native people in the 12 century. The area was thought to have been a meeting place of different cultures and and important center for trade.
Thursday, December 10, 2009
During this week in 2004, Cecilia Fire Thunder took the oath of office as the first woman president of the Oglala Sioux Tribe. She was later impeached for her stand on women's right to choose. The tribe currently has a female leader, President Theresa Two Bulls.
Wednesday, December 9, 2009
During this week in 1991, the Custer Battlefield Monument was renamed the Little Bighorn Battlefield Monument. It is located in Montana at the site of the 1876 battle between the U.S. Army and Lakota, Cheyenne and Arapaho people.
Tuesday, December 8, 2009
During this week in 1997, the Kake Cannery in Alaska was designated as a National Historic Landmark to commemorate and illustrate its history. Alaska Native people had a part in the salmon canning industry at the site.
Monday, December 7, 2009
During this week in 2008, a group of Navajo and Hopi people traveled to Colorado to pressure the federal government to stop coal mining on ancestral and sacred land in Black Mesa, Arizona. Residents say decades of coal mining has depleted and contaminated their water source.
Friday, December 4, 2009
On this day in 1972, the Alaska Native village corporation for Golovin in the Bering Straits Region was officially incorporated. The village was a supply point for gold fields after the precious metal was discovered in Council, Alaska in the late 1800's.
Thursday, December 3, 2009
During this month in 2006, the Senate passed an Act to provide assistance to ongoing Native American language restoration programs. The Act was named in honor of Ohkay Owingeh storyteller Esther Martinez who helped create a Tewa language dictionary.
Wednesday, December 2, 2009
During this week in 1947, Athabascan dog musher Carl Huntington was born. The Alaska Native man won the second ever Iditarod race in 1974. It took him about 20 days and 15 hours to finish the race.
Tuesday, December 1, 2009
During this week in 1960, the Arctic National Wildlife Range was created in Alaska, north of the Arctic Circle. It was renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge also called ANWR. More than 19 million acres of land are protected. Opening up oil development in ANWR continues to be a hot topic among many Alaska Native people.
Monday, November 30, 2009
On this day in 1972, the Alaska Native village corporation for Teller in the Bering Straits Region was officially incorporated. Located northwest of Nome, Teller was established in 1900 as a mining town.
Wednesday, November 25, 2009
During this week in 1880, the Havasupai Reservation was established in the western part of the Grand Canyon. The reservation was initially 60-square miles. Two years later it was reduced to less than 1-square mile to accommodate mining interests in the area. It took more than 90 years for the tribe to get its land back.
Tuesday, November 24, 2009
During this week in 1900, Alaska Native leader Nick Gray was born in Council City. He helped found the Cook Inlet Native Association and was instrumental in unifying Alaska Natives into statewide organizations.
Monday, November 23, 2009
On this day in 2005, the Canadian government announced its two billion dollar compensation plan to former students of Indian residential schools for the abuses they suffered. The government sent out checks, made an official apology and established a commission to document the experiences of students. The commission has been rocky with the turnover in members and day school students are now seeking a settlement.
Friday, November 20, 2009
During this week in 1945, Wilma Mankiller was born in Tahlequah, Oklahoma. She was the first Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation.
Thursday, November 19, 2009
During this week 2008, more than ten thousand Indigenous people marched to Colombia’s capital to demand land reforms and human rights.
Wednesday, November 18, 2009
During this week in 2008, the North Dakota chapter of the American Civil Liberties Union honored Dr. David Gipp. Gipp is the President of United Tribes Technical College. He received the North Dakota Champion of Liberty award for his lifelong commitment to the work of racial justice.
Tuesday, November 17, 2009
During this week in 1944, the National Congress of American Indians was established. The organization monitors federal policy and includes member tribes from across the country.
Monday, November 16, 2009
During this week in 2008, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana and the Consul General of Israel to the Southwest signed a proclamation. The proclamation acknowledged the cultural exchange and was a step to explore future economic development initiatives. Tribal, local and state officials attended the event at the tribal headquarters in Elton, Louisiana.
Friday, November 13, 2009
During this week in 2008, Joseph Boyden, a Canadian Aboriginal, received the Giller Prize for Fiction, one of Canada's most prestigious book awards. He won the award for his book "Through Black Spruce." It's the story of a Cree woman's search for her missing sister and life on a northern Canadian reserve.
Thursday, November 12, 2009
On this day in 1912, Native rights leaders Peter Simpon and Frank Mercer along with three teachers sent a letter to the Commissioner of Education. The letter requested citizenship for Alaska Native people and recommended mandatory education. It also protested the use of fish traps in Southeast Alaska.
Wednesday, November 11, 2009
During this week in 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act was made into law. It sets federal requirements for Indian child custody proceedings. ICWA was passed in response to the high number of Indian Children being removed from their homes.
Tuesday, November 10, 2009
On this day in 1998, American Indian and Alaska Native military veterans were honored by the Defense Department during a ceremony. The event featured performances by military veterans from Alaska's Sitka Tribe. It also paid special tribute to Navajo Code Talkers.
Monday, November 9, 2009
On this day in 1973, the Alaska Native village corporation for Hoonah in Southeast Alaska was established. Tlingit people have occupied the Glacier Bay and Icy Strait area since prehistory.
Thursday, November 5, 2009
On this day in 1912, the Alaska Native Brotherhood met for the first time in Juneau, voting and adopting rules governing its purpose and membership requirements. Peter Simpson was elected president and Frank Mercer, who is credited with creating the name, was elected secretary.